First, do you also have a UV filter on the lens? Ie, are you stacking two filters together? If so, you'll need to remove one. The basic issue is that the lens does have a very wide field of view at the 10mm end - wide enough to see the rim of the filter. It may be the case that some filters still have a rim that's deep enough to be seen at the wide end of the zoom range. When I got a UV filter for my 10-22, I specifically went for one with a low profile. I don't use a polariser with it, but I did notice that there are special low profile versions of those as well.
In general, a polariser has a deeper rim than other filters because it's actually two layers of filter and two rims - polarisers work by rotating two filters relative to each other. The rear rim screws into the front of the lens and holds one layer of filter, and the front rim rotates while holding the other layer of filter. The extra rim and layer of filter mean that they tend to be a bit deeper than normal single layer filters. For most lenses, this is fine, but can result in vignetting with a ultra-wide angle.
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